[Todos CMAT] del Boletin IMU-enero 2019

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Vie Feb 1 12:37:10 -03 2019

  **1. **Editorial: Breakout Graduate Fellowships*
    *We have been asked to report on the IMU’s relatively new Breakout
    Graduate Fellowships. These were an initiative of Ingrid Daubechies
    when she was President to support mathematics in developing
    countries. Mathematicians can play a vital role in the development
    of their countries, and Ingrid wanted to find a way that the IMU
    could foster the growth of a mathematically sophisticated workforce
    in these countries. This relies on having well trained
    mathematicians with research experience teaching in local
    universities. Training a research mathematician in the developed
    world is very expensive and increases the chance that he or she does
    not return to the developing world. On the other hand there are many
    places in the developing world that can provide a high quality
    education for PhD students at what is comparatively a very low cost.
    So Ingrid sought an endowment to provide fellowships for students
    from the developing world studying, perhaps elsewhere, in the
    developing world. It happened that the inaugural winners of the
    Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics, the mathematics prize very
    generously funded by Yuri Milner and Mark Zuckerberg, were
    simultaneously looking for a way to give a little back to
    mathematics and this seemed like a good match. Every winner of the
    Breakthrough Prize in Mathematics has contributed to the Breakout
    Graduate Fellowship Fund, which has now raised $900,000. We very
    much hope that this tradition will continue, and indeed that the IMU
    and the Breakthrough Prize Foundation will find other ways to
    cooperate. It is not necessary to win a Breakthrough Prize to
    contribute! All contributions are greatly valued and can be sent to
    the Friends of the IMU: http://friends-imu.org/donate/ .

    The fellowships can cover both living and tuition expenses, up to
    $10,000 a year for at most 4 years. The first competition was held
    in 2016 and awards were made to Do Thai Duong, who is studying
    complex analysis and geometry at Vietnam Academy of Science and
    Technology; Maria Alejandra Ramirez Luna, who is studying
    differential geometry at the Universidad del Valle, Colombia; and to
    Abebe Regessa Tufa an Ethiopian who studied analysis at the Botswana
    International University. In June 2018, Tufa became the first
    graduate from the fellowship program, when he was awarded a PhD for
    his thesis `Approximating Solutions of Fixed Point, Variational
    Inequality and Hammerstein Type Equation Problems’. He has now taken
    up an Assistant Professorship at Bahir Dar University back in Ethiopia.

    There will be a second competition this year with up to 3 further
    fellowships available. Candidates cannot apply themselves, but must
    be nominated by a senior mathematician. More details of the
    competition are given under item 2of this newsletter.

    We urge mathematicians around the world to support this program,
    either by nominating worthy candidates or by contributing to the
    fellowship fund.

    Terry Tao (UCLA)
    Richard Taylor (Stanford University)


    **2. **New call of the Breakout Graduate Fellowship Programme of the

    Thanks to a generous donation by the winners of the Breakthrough
    Prizes in Mathematics (Ian Agol, Jean Bourgain, Simon Donaldson,
    Christopher Hacon, Maxim Kontsevich, Vincent Lafforgue, Jacob Lurie,
    James McKernan, Terence Tao and Richard Taylor), IMU - with the
    assistance of FIMU (www.friends-imu.org <http://www.friends-imu.org>
    ) and TWAS (https://twas.org) - is opening a new call of the IMU
    Breakout Graduate Fellowship program to support postgraduate studies
    in a developing country, leading to a PhD degree in the mathematical
    sciences. The IMU Breakout Graduate Fellowships offers a limited
    number of complete grants, with duration of up to four years, for
    excellent students from developing countries.

    Professional mathematicians are invited to nominate highly motivated
    and mathematically talented students from developing countries who
    plan to complete a doctoral degree in a developing country,
    including their own home country. Nominees must have a consistently
    good academic record and must be seriously interested in pursuing a
    career of research and teaching in mathematics.

    For a nomination to be eligible, the country of citizenship of the
    student, the country of residency and the country where the study
    will take place must be contained in the list of Developing
    Countries as defined by IMU for the period 2016-2019.

    The 2019 call will be open from February 11 to May 30, 2019. More
    information in

    Olga Gil-Medrano (Secretary for Policy of the CDC)


    **3. **CEIC: Notes and Comments*

    As the IMU begins another four-year cycle between ICMs, it's an
    appropriate time to reflect on the issues being dealt with by the
    Committee on Electronic Information and Communication (CEIC
    <https://www.mathunion.org/ceic>). Although there are many topics
    within CEIC's mission, such as best practices for archiving and
    accessibility or how to take advantage of new capabilities of
    digital media, the most pressing concern for many mathematicians is
    open access.  How can we ensure that all interested readers have
    full access to the mathematical literature, without in turn creating
    barriers to publishing?

    Traditionally journals have used a subscription model, which is
    ideal from the perspective of authors, but leads to paywalls for
    readers as well as high costs to subscribing institutions when
    commercial publishers extract as much profit as they can.  Even
    mathematicians at well-funded universities do not have access to
    every journal, and the situation is much worse for poorly funded
    universities or independent scholars (although Sci-Hub and similar
    forms of copyright violation relieve some of the pressure).

    At the other extreme, open access based on article processing
    charges (APCs) is ideal for readers, but imposes costs for
    publishing.  Authors are not expected to pay those costs personally,
    but rather through grants or institutional funding, with fee waivers
    available when suitable funding is not available.  However, it is
    unclear how well such a system can realistically apply to
    mathematics, where first-rate research is often not funded.

    A third option is an extremely low-cost system based primarily on
    volunteer labor, implicitly subsidized by the volunteers'
    employers.  There is no doubt this can work well on a small scale,
    but it remains to be seen how well it can scale to the full size of
    the mathematical research community, or whether the implicit
    subsidization is really the most cost-effective approach.

    It remains an open question what will work best, particular given
    how different mathematics is from scientific publishing more
    broadly.  For example, mathematics papers are often ten times longer
    than biology papers, while the authors generally have far less
    research funding available.

    One trend mathematicians should be aware of is "read and publish"
    agreements, in which institutions or consortia negotiate with
    publishers to replace subscription agreements with new agreements
    that make all articles published by the consortium open access,
    without APCs for individual articles.  For example, the German
    consortium Project DEAL recently reached such an agreement with
    Wiley (see
    Of course a large consortium may have an easier time negotiating,
    but individual universities have also reached read and publish
    agreements with some publishers (such as
    Mathematicians should work to ensure that these agreements meet our

    Another important issue is whether currently existing journals are
    locked into their publishers.  Typically, the answer is yes from a
    legal perspective, at least regarding the journal's name and back
    issues, but the editorial board can always start a new, competing
    journal, which will inherit much or all of its predecessor's
    reputation.  This gives the editorial board considerable leverage to
    negotiate with the publisher on behalf of the community, to ensure
    that they feel the publisher's policies and prices are fair, and it
    gives them an exit strategy if they are unable to reach agreement
    with the publisher.  The MathOA organization
    (http://www.mathoa.org/) can assist editorial boards that wish to
    transition to open access.


    **4. **CWM: Gender Gap Project and Women in Mathematics Day*

    The /Gender Gap Project/, an international and interdisciplinary
    project lead by IMU is entering in its third and final year.

    We have in particular collected about 32 000 answers for the Global
    Survey of Scientists. The number of answers from the mathematical
    community is very satisfactory, with nearly 6 000 answers, thanks to
    the efforts of IMU and ICIAM which are 2 of the 11 partners of the

    The proportion of answers by geographical zone is as follows:  4,57
    % of the answers are from Africa, 20,22 % from Asia, 4,29 % from
    Eastern Europe, 17,56 % from Latino-America, 12,16 % from North
    America, 3,92 % from Oceania and 33,54 % from Western Europe. The
    proportion of these answers from men and women in the various zones
    is not the same: the proportion of answer by women is around 38% for
    Asia, 43% for Oceania, 47% for Europe and Latin America, 50% in
    North America and 59% in Africa, the average being 44%.

    The third year will be devoted to analyzing the results from the
    Global Survey of Scientists and the Joint data-backed Study on
    Publication Patterns, and to formulate recommendations.

    A conference presenting the results of the project, its conclusions
    and recommendations is going to take place at ICTP (Trieste) from 4
    to 8 November 2019. More on https://gender-gap-in-science.org/ .

    The /Women in Mathematics Day/ will be celebrated for the first time
    in 2019, on May 12th.

    Doctor Ashraf Daneshkhah from the Women’s Committee of the Iranian
    Mathematical Society, presented to the participants of (WM)², the
    World Meeting for Women in Mathematics organized by CWM on 31 July
    in Rio, a proposal that Maryam Mirzakhani’s birthday – May 12th – be
    recognized and supported as the Women in Mathematics Day. The date
    would be celebrated every year inside the mathematical community,
    encouraging women from all over the world to advance their
    achievements in the field. This was approved by a vast majority of
    (WM)² participants.

    CWM is going to prepare a website, poster and flyer, and to use its
    network of CWM ambassadors to encourage the organization of various
    local events, ranging from breakfast, lunch, tea, reception,
    round-table, film projection (Journeys of Women in Math for example)
    or exhibition of the Remember Maryam Mirzakhani posters etc., around
    May12th 2019.


    **5. **ICM 2018

    *In the recent Newsletter 15
    <http://www.icm2018.org/portal/news45.html> of the international
    congress, you find links to the story of the nine days of
    mathematics at the ICM 2018
    <http://www.icm2018.org/portal/main.html>, fully reported in photos,
    videos, and news stories. Congress proceedings and digital files are
    now available for sale.


    **6. **Maths Day for Development

    *A Maths Day for Development
    <http://www.studio-tema.com/PROGRESS/maths-days/index-eng.html> will
    be held on March 15 this year at UNESCO (Paris, France) under the
    auspices of CIMPA, the French CNRS, and the French National
    Commission for UNESCO. The event aims at raising awareness about the
    importance of mathematics regarding development issues, in
    particular of high-level mathematical teaching and research.


    **7. **Help the Venezuela Mathematical Community*

    For over 30 years, the Venezuelan Mathematical Association (AMV
    <http://www.ciens.ucv.ve/ciens/amv/>) has promoted the teaching of
    mathematics and mathematical research in Venezuela, and has been the
    link between the Venezuelan community of mathematicians, the
    International Mathematical Union (IMU) and the Unión Matemática de
    América Latina y el Caribe (UMALCA <http://www.umalca.org/>). The
    AMV has been profoundly affected in recent years by the extremely
    difficult situation of the country, which has resulted in the near
    paralysis of its activities and a significant migration of
    mathematicians from Venezuela to other countries. As a result, the
    AMV has been unable to pay its fees to IMU and to UMALCA for several

    During the General Assembly of the IMU that took place in Sao Paulo
    prior to the International Congress of Mathematicians (ICM 2018)
    in Rio de Janeiro, it was expected that Venezuela would be expelled
    from the IMU. This did not occur thanks to the solidarity of many
    delegations present, and Venezuela was granted a grace period until
    December 2019. At the initiative of the President of the ICM 2018,
    Brazil generously offered to cover a third of AMV’s debt, and other
    mathematical societies also expressed their disposition to collaborate.

    We are asking for your help to pay our EUR 8,000 six-year debt to
    IMU, as well as an additional amount owed to UMALCA and to support
    the activities of the AMV in Venezuela. We are addressing our
    request to Venezuelan mathematicians, as well as to friends of
    mathematics from anywhere in the world. Your support is critical for
    the continuity of AMV’s academic and research activities in
    Venezuela during this extended period of extreme economic stress.
    Current and future generations of Venezuelan mathematicians will be
    extremely grateful.
    Your contribution can be realized through the following link:

    Pedro Berrizbeitia   (President of the AMV)


    **8. **Jean Bourgain (1954-2018)*

    Jean Bourgain passed away on December 22, 2018, after a long and
    valiant struggle with cancer. Bourgain was a giant in the field of
    Mathematics. His vision, technical power and broad accomplishments
    were outstanding.

    Bourgain had to his credit so many striking results that it is
    difficult to select his most important contributions. Some of his
    breakthroughs were the proof of invariance of the Gibbs measure for
    certain infinite dimensional Hamiltonian systems, the proof of
    global existence for critical nonlinear Schrodinger equations, the
    proof of the Erdos-Volkmann ring conjecture, the development with
    Kontorovich of striking applications of the “circle method” to
    Apollonian packings and the Zaremba conjecture, the proof of the L2
    decoupling conjecture with Demeter and the proof of the Vinogradov
    mean value theorem, with Demeter and Guth. Besides having obtained
    central results in many aspects of mathematical analysis, Bourgain
    also made major advances in theoretical computer science, group
    theory, number theory, convex geometry and the geometry of Banach

    Bourgain was a widely celebrated mathematician, having received many
    awards, including the Fields Medal in 1994, the Salem Prize, the
    Élie Cartan Prize, the Ostrowski Prize, the Shaw Price, the Craaford
    Prize, the Feltrinelli Prize, the Steele Prize for lifetime
    achievement and the Breakthrough Price in Mathematics. In 2015, his
    country, Belgium, bestowed upon him the title of Baron.

    Jean Bourgain served as professor at the Free University of Belgium,
    the University of Illinois, the Hebrew University, Caltech, the
    Institut des Hautes Etudes Scientifiques (IHES) and from 1994 on at
    the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS) where he was the IBM Von
    Neumann Professor.

    Jean Bourgain’s grace and courage during his long illness were
    deeply appreciated. His devotion to mathematics was on clear display
    during this terribly difficult time, in which he continued making
    fundamental new contributions to mathematics.

    Jean Bourgain’s contributions to mathematics will be remembered
    forever. Those who knew him will also remember his warmth,
    generosity, and graciousness.

    Carlos Kenig (Univ. Chicago, IMU-president)


    **9. **Sir Michael Atiyah (1929-2019)

    Sir Michael Atiyah died in Edinburgh, aged 89, on January 11th 2019.
    He was one of the giants of mathematics whose work influenced an
    enormous range of subjects. His most notable achievement, with
    Isadore Singer, is the Index Theorem which occupied him for over 20
    years, generating results in topology, geometry and number theory
    using the analysis of elliptic differential operators. Then, in
    mid-life, he learned that theoretical physicists also needed the
    theorem and this opened the door to an interaction between the two
    disciplines which he pursued energetically till the end of his life.
    It led him not only to mathematical results on the Yang-Mills
    equations that the physicists needed but also to encouraging the
    importation of concepts from quantum field theory into pure

    Born of a Lebanese father and a Scottish mother, his early years
    were spent in English schools in the Middle East. He then followed
    the natural course for a budding mathematician in that environment
    by going to Cambridge where he ended up writing his thesis under
    William Hodge and becoming a Fellow at Trinity College where he
    started to pursue his research. But, attending the ICM in Amsterdam
    in 1954, his eyes were opened to the exciting work that was going on
    in the outside world and the opportunity then arose to spend a year
    at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton where he met his
    future collaborators and close friends Raoul Bott, Fritz Hirzebruch
    and Singer. The benefits of international collaboration which he
    valued so highly were made concrete when in 1957 Hirzebruch
    established in Bonn the annual Arbeitstagung where Michael was
    always the first speaker. In those years he and Hirzebruch developed
    topological K-theory, which subsequently became the natural vehicle
    for the index theorem.

    A visit by Singer to Oxford in 1962 (where Atiyah had recently
    moved) began the actual work on the Index Theorem, which ultimately
    led to a Fields Medal in 1966 and, with Singer, the Abel Prize in
    2004. Another visit in 1977 brought mathematical questions
    concerning gauge theory. Using quite sophisticated algebraic
    geometry and the novel work of Roger Penrose this yielded a precise
    answer to the physicists' questions: the so-called ADHM construction
    of instantons. The fact that mathematicians and physicists had
    common ground in a completely new context made a huge impression on
    Michael and he was energetic in the following years in facilitating
    this cooperation.

    With a naturally effervescent personality he possessed, in Singer's
    words, ``speed, depth, power and energy". His strong voice could be
    heard across many a departmental common room explaining some crucial
    point. Collaborations were all-important, bouncing ideas around, two
    or three people in front of the blackboard, exploring ideas, erasing
    them, sudden insights. This also held for his students -- he needed
    continuous feedback and challenges. He had a natural talent for
    lecturing: leaving the lecture theatre you always had the feeling
    you had understood things, though trying to reproduce them later was
    a different matter. Beauty in mathematics was a feature he took
    seriously. It was in evidence in so many of his ideas and proofs and
    in his later years he actually instigated a neurological experiment
    to detect its presence.

    Sir Michael received numerous awards and honours. He worked for the
    mathematical community in many ways. In particular, he was
    instrumental in founding the Isaac Newton Institute (where he
    insisted that it should be for the Mathematical Sciences) and the
    European Mathematical Society. He was also President of the Royal
    Society of London where he found himself in a situation where he
    could voice long-held views about science in general. He contributed
    to the IMU itself in many ways, including two terms on the Executive
    Committee. He will be greatly missed by all.

    Nigel Hitchin (Oxford, UK)

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